Above: Chief Rocky Boy of Chippewa Tribe of Montana
Left: An ordinary Native American Beauty of the Chippewa Tribe Ms. Native America USA
Various Name Spellings:Chippewa, Ojibwa, Ojibway
In their earliest history they were often called Chippeway or Chipaway. Chippewa is the Anglicized version of Ojibway (also spelled Ojibwe and Ojibwa). The origins of the name Ojibwa are really not known. However, the word for before in Ojibwa is Chi-bwa or Ji-bwa. Ojibwa has nothing to do with moccasins. Later, an "o" was added and a "y" also. And an "n" was used also. Before, can represent "first and original" also.
So Chi-bwa is the correct name. However, the "o" can mean "the" so it can actually represent, The First and The Originals. Ojibwa probably means The Original, while Ojibway probably means The Originals. Then we have to include Bwan as well. We know the "n" in Bwan is the plural so Ojibwan may be correct as may be Chippewan (properly spelled Chipweyan). Exactly what the "o" and "y" represent is a mystery. The name Chippewa is more commonly used in the United States and the name Ojibway is more common in Canada
Major Bands: Algonquin; Amikwa who are also known as the Nez Perce (they are the Nez Perce of Idaho), Bungee; Chipewyan including the Dogrib; Gwich'in; Hare; Slave; Yellowknifes; and all other Dene People; Cree (the northern Ojibway's or Muskeego); Missisaugaa; Nakawe; Nipissing; Ottawa or Odawa; Pembina; and Saulteaux or Saulteau. All Great Lakes Algonquians are Chippewa including the Abenaki; Delaware including the Mahican; Munsee; and Naticoke; Illini; Kickapoo; Menominee; Miami; Potawatomi; Sac or Sauk (both are short for Saginaw); the Saginaw including the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa's; Shawnee; and Stockbridge. Out west, the Arapaho; Blackfeet; Cheyenne; and Gros Ventre. Further west, the Apache; Navajo; Wappo; Wichita (William Clark claimed in 1805, the Wichita are Chippaways who lived along the Red River between Oklahoma and Texas); Wiyot; Yuki; and Yurok.
Other Bands: Fish, Loon, Marten, Crane, and the Bear are totems. All totem members lived in all Chippewa villages.
Little Shell Band of Chippewa
List of bands from the National Archives descriptive pamphlet: Bad River Chippewa, Bois Fort Chippewa, Cass Lake and Winnibigoshish Chippewa, Chippewa Chippewa, Fond du Lac Chippewa. Grand Portage Chippewa, Gull Lake Chippewa, Lac Courte Oreilles Chippewa, Lac du Flambeau Chippewa, Leech Lake Pillager Chippewa, Mille Lac Chippewa, Nett Lake Chippewa, Otter Tail Pillage, Pembina, Red Cliff Chippewa, Red Lake Chippewa, Rice Lake Chippewa, turtle Mountain, Vermillion Lake Chippewa, and White Earth Chippewa
Original Homelands: Great Lakes region Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa; North Dakota, Montana, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, Idaho, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Ontario, Saskatchewan, Quebec, and Yukon; Mexico including the States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Sinaloa, and Sonora.
Linguistic: Algonquian including Athabascan or Dene. The 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia proves the Athabascan or Dene People, are Algonquian. Click the link below. Or visit googlebooks.com. Write The 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia in the search box. Another link below has a list of Algonquian speaking tribes. It's very helpful in learning about how spread the Algonquian language is.
See also: Chippewa-Cree
Office of Indian Affairs
State Capitol Building 2nd Floor,Room 202
PO Box 200801
Helena, Montana 59620
(406) 444-3702 Fax: (406) 444-1350
Little Shell Tribe Of Chippewa Indians of Montana
P.O. Box 543
Black Eagle, MT 59414
Phone (406) 315-2400
Fax (406) 315-2401
Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians Tribal Government,
please feel free to call either Cory LaVallie, Administrative Assistant – 477-2603;
or Jolean Morin, Records Manager – 477-2602.
They will gladly answer your questions.
The Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians
531 Ashmun St.
Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783
For further links see Wikipedia's Salt Tribe of Chippewa Indians
Dakota Ojibway Tribal Council
The Dakota Ojibway Tribal Council (in Canada) consists of Nine Member First Nations.
The Chippewa or Ojibway Indians are one of the largest groups of American Indians in North America. There are nearly 150 different bands of Chippewa in the northern part of the United States and in southern Canada (especially in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan)
The Chippewa were exposed to non-Indians in the early 1600's.The tribe established trade relations with the French. During the French and Indian War, they fought the English and French to protect their land and race.
The Chippewa, Ottawas, and Potowatomi confederacy became know as the Three Fires.
The tribe fought the British Colonies during the Revolutionary War.
Land cessions began before 1815, and continued to the early 1900's. As land was ceded, many tribal members migrated north, south, and west.
Commencing in 1860, the tribe was removed to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. Relocation to northeastern Oklahoma continued up to the early 1900's. They (the Swan Creek and Black River Saginaw Chippewa's with some Munsee), were forced to join the Cherokee in northeastern Oklahoma where they lost their tribal identity. In 1882, they were assigned to Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota, and later assigned to the Rocky Boy's reservation in Montana with the Cree tribe with whom they had united with in the 1890's. Later becoming known as the Chippewa-Cree.
The Chippewa's have lived in the western part of North America for an extremely long time. They had an early warning (the Seven Fires Prophecy) and prepared. Even before the whites invaded. Lewis and Clark knew the Chippewa's or Chippaways, were living in Texas long before 1805. William Clark wrote in his journals under Estimates for the Eastern Indians, that they lived in Texas. They are listed number 53. Click this Clark Journals link to read about it. Or google Lewis and Clark's journals.
The Chippewa today are of mixed blood, mostly Native, French and English. Many live on reservations in Canada and the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Montana and North Dakota).
WPA Interviews of Chippewa - Bad River Reservation at Viterbo College in LaCrosse , now at
Wisconsin Historical Society (State)
Moons or Months of the Year
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Chippewa tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
Ohio History Central article on the Chippewa Indians
Densmore, Frances and Smithsonian Institution. Chippewa Customs. FHL Film 1009057 item 1
Danziger, Edmund Jefferson. The Chippewas of Lake Superior. Norman, OK. University of OK. 1978. FHL Book 970.3 C444da
Blackbird, Andrew J. History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan. Ypsilanti, MI 1887. FHL Book 970.1 B562h or FHL film 1011853 Item; or Ottawa Chippewa
Warren, William Whipple. History of the Ojibway Nation. FHL Book 970.3 Oj3ww
From the mid-1800's, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources.
Bruce, H. E. The Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota. Belcourt, ND. Turtle Mountain Consolidated Agency, 1948.Bands and Other SubdivisionsUnited States
Many of the bands or groups of Chippewa in the United States reside in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The band names have changed or have been spelled differently over time. Many of the groups listed below have their own reservation. Some are federally recognized and have an agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs with whom they interact. Multiple groups sometimes interact with a single BIA Agency. More information will be forthcoming on pages for each of the bands or groups listed below.
Some of the larger bands of Chippewa in the United States are: Canada
The Ojibway First Nations in Canada, live in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut..
Ransom Judd Powell, 1865-1937 His Papers in the Minnesota Historical Society's Division of Library and Archives. His involvement with the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians of the White Earth (Minnesota) Reservation) as a member of government commission established by Congress in 1913 to compile a roll and land allotments within the White Earth Reservation and determine the blood status of each allottee s. FHL films 1550598- 1550612
Harold Hickerson. Land Tenure of the Rainy Lake Chippewa. FHL film: 965791 item 5Correspondence and Census[[PASTING TABLES IS NOT SUPPORTED]]
National Archives film M2039, Correspondence, Field Notes, and Census Roll of all members or descendents of members who were on the roll of the Ottawa and the Chippewa tribes of Michigan in 1870, and living on March 4, 1907 (Durant Roll).
National Archives film M234, Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881. Includes 1. 1838 list of Chippewa, Ottawa and Pottawatomie entitled to benefits at the Council Bluffs Agency. (File H571, Roll 215) 2. 1878 lists of heads of families for Pillager and Lake Winnebigoshish Chippewa, (Fild K259, Roll 1166) 3. 1878 lists of heads of families for White Oake, Point and Mississippi Chippewa, (File K266, Roll 166)(source: NAR RR#1002)
Fruth, Alban Reverend. A Century of Missionary Work Among the Red Lake Chippewa Indians, 1858-1958. Red Lake, MN:St. Mary's Mission, C 1958. FHL Digital
The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:
EXTERNAL LINKS THAT WILL DIRECT YOU TO A DIFFERENT WEBSITE
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs..., Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians, and others.
For background information to help find American Indian ancestors see For Further Reading.References